文本类型对英语听力篇章理解难度影响

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文本类型对英语听力篇章理解难度影响
The Effect of Text Type on Task Difficulty of English Passage Listening  
 
Contents
Acknowledgements i
Abstract ii
摘要 iii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Necessity and Significance of The Study 2
Chapter 2 Raise questions 3
2.1 Is It Really Exist Effect of Text Type on Task Difficulty of English Passage Listening 3
2.2 Is It the Same Influence that Text Type on English Majors and Non-English majors 3
2.3 What Types of Text is More Difficult on Task of English Passage Listening 4
2.4 Different Listening Strategies to Different Text Types 5
Chapter 3 Problem Analysis 6
3.1 According to literature material make sure the theory basis of this paper has cognitive theory, schema theory and the theory of second language acquisition 6
3.2 Find out the Effect of Text Type on Task Difficulty of English Passage Listening through questionnaire and experiment 7
3.3 Sorting the material and analysis the relevant date of literature and survey 7
Chapter 4 The solution of the Problem 8
4.1 Sum up the more difficult text type for students according to the investigation on English majors and Non-English majors in their english study 8
4.2 Draw conclusion based on the reasonable data summary of experiments 9
4.3 Putting forward some feasible suggestions for students and teachers 10
 
Acknowledgements
 
First and foremost, I would like to extend my sincere gratitude to my superior, Miss, Lu, a respectable, responsible and resourceful teacher, who with extraordinary patience and consistent encouragement, gave me great help by providing me with necessary materials, advice of great value and inspirations that draw my attention to a number of deficiencies and make many things clear. Without her enlightening instruction, impressive kindness and patience, I would not have completed my thesis. Her keen and vigorous academic observation enlightens me not only in this thesis but also in my future study. 
I shall extend my thanks to my roommate for her cooperation, comments, and wise advice. Lastly, my thanks would go to my beloved family for their long considerations and great confidence in me all through my college life. I also owe my sincere gratitude to my friends and my fellow classmates who gave me their help and time in listening to me and helping me work out my problems during the difficult course of the thesis.
 
Abstract: Listening comprehension as one of the basic skills of listening speaking reading writing and translating, always is considered to be the foundation of the language acquisition. According to the account from American professor Paul rankin,“listening” account for 45% of the people’s Daily speech event. However, the study of classroom teaching practice found that listening teaching is still a week link in the process of English teaching. There are various factors lead to learners’ listening comprehension obstacles, among them that the texe type is also the important factor affecting listening comprehension, but there is not enough in-depth and specific research, it’s to be added in the future.
The study of text types has been for a long time and many scholars made remarkable achievements for it. Some of their research findings are used for reference in this thesis. This thesis involves two aspects, the effect of text types on task difficulty of english passage listening and the strategies of improving listening comprehension. To effectively improve listening comprehension, it demans this paper make a more comprehensive analysis between text types and english listening comprehension.
 
Keywords: Text types; Listening comprehension 
 
摘要: 听力理解作为听、说、读、写、译的基本技能之一,一直都被认为是语言习得的基础—据美国保尔兰金教授统计,“听”占人们日常言语活动的45%。然而,研究课堂教学实践发现,听力教学仍然是英语教学过程中的一个薄弱环节;导致学习者听力障碍的因素多种多样,其中文本类型也是影响听力理解的重要因素,但这方面的研究却不够深入与具体,有待补充。
很早以前就有很多学者对文本类型进行研究,并且取得了卓越的成就,很多研究成果在本篇论文中都有引用。本篇论文包含了两个方面:文本类型对英语听力难度的影响和提高英语听力的策略。为了使英语听力跟有效的提高,这就要求对文本类型和听力理解进行更全面的分析。
 
关键词: 文本类型、听力理解
 
Chapter 1 Introduction
 
1.1 Research Background
1.1.1 Currently research overseas
Earlier in foreign countries, it is the German translation scholars Rice who first put forward the issue of text type. Rice(1971:22) put forward the importance of the study of text type in his book “The translation criticism: prospects and limitations”. He borrows the research result of  language function theory which is made by Buller, and he divided it into three categories on the basis: content as the main form text, form as the main form text, infection as the main form text. Peter newmark also has the research in this field, and his research has the same effect with Rice on the classification of english text. Newmark also borrows the theory of language function of Buller, and divides the text type based on the classification of language functions. Mainly divided into: express text, including literature, authoritative speech, biography, essays, personal letters, etc; Information text, including teaching materials, professional reports, newspaper articlea, academic papers, meeting minutes, etc; Summon text, including notices, manuals, brochures, advertisement, etc(1988-30). Newmark thinks that each text type has its own features, he also points out that there’s little text only has one function, most of them with three kinds of functions, it’s just different on side key, any type of text will has informative, expressive and induced at least three functions of any one or more of the following, and often dominated by one of the function of auxiliary for the other two. It can help you to improve listening ability if you choose the appropriate listening strategies and methods according to the text type.
 
1.1.2 Currently research domestic 
   The study of  the relationship between text types and English listening discourse understanding begins late in domestic. There are many methods on classifying on text type, including on the basis of theme and function for classification can be roughly divided into: text, audio and video text form text, content and calling in the text. DouYan pointed out: the types of discourse and textual patterns is an important category of discourse linguistics, according to different communicative functions and purposes discourse can be divided into different types, discourse types restricts the textual patterns and discourse structure. On the definition of the discourse type, she divided it into two types: broad sense and narrow sense: the generalized discourse types can be referring to all the types of discourse; Special form of discourse refers to with the same style or content of the literature, art, music, painting, such as type (DouYan, 2008).
   Xu Chengping (2012) pointed out: the understanding of the chapter no matter from which Angle means for learners is a daunting task: structure, it is more complicated than sentences, dialogue; Significance on understanding, information capacity is bigger, the relationship between information is more diverse; on memory problems, it needs big load of working memory and long-term memory at the same time. According to the concept and the information structure, Although the text of listening passages has been divided, it[s unable to feflected in the process of the listening, from the text the information structure should to be reconstructed according to the experience and knowledge of the text by listener. Therefore, the understanding of the chapter not only test the building of a single information and also test the construction of information network.
  
 
1.2 Necessity and Significance of The Study    
With the rapid development of the world economy, the status of English has been identified presently. The ability of listening is a very important part of English learning. And it’s also the imperative argument of evaluating the comprehensive English abilities. As is known to all, listening comprehension is agreed to be the foundation of language acquisition, anyone who wants to learn a foreign language, should firstly learn to listen. However, it's found that listening comprehension is still a weak link in the process of English teaching through careful observation in classroom teaching practice ,however one of the important reasons why listener can't understand that the listener is lack of the relevant background information about topic. Text type is another important factors affecting listening comprehension. There have been some research at home and abroad about the relationship between text type and the listening comprehension, but the most listening materials are adopted by the monologue discourse text, therefore, it is necessary to study various types of text on the impact of the learners' listening comprehension. Nevertheless, many problems arose when it carried out in listening comprehension. There are too many reasons resulted in the weakness of listening comprehension in the most English learners. Thus, how to improve the ability of listening becomes the difficult problem for listeners. Of course except the text types, there are also many reasons for this, such as large vocabulary, fast speed, lacking of the ability of capturing information and so on. This thesis is aimed at finding out the problems and solutions and this topic is worth researching and improving. 
 
 
Chapter 2 Raise Questions
   Text is the carrier of language,it is also the basis of the cognitive and distinguish style and function. The study of text typology provides objective and scientific data for listening quality evaluation. And dividaixied and understanding all kinds of text is the fundamental understanding of all kinds of genre phenomenon, and it  has the primary role to evaluatie the quality of listening. Different text types constitute in the different language forms, including word characteristics, behavior, format and specification, rhetorical devices, etc., also has formed the different evaluation standards of language listening criteria and principles, and the standards and principles are providedfor the listening result parameters and the basis, it also helps the further study of listening and implementation of performance evaluation model, makes the listening quality evaluation model more maneuverability and practicability
2.1 Is It Really Exist Effect of Text Type on Task Difficulty of English Passage Listening
   Generalized speaking, the analysis of any interpretation or object is the text, the text is considered to be dominant and written,it is a  visible sueface structure of the epic works, which has some characteristic such as the expression, the nature of the subject, format, type of structure, language style, form surface factors, so the text was made to be a relatively closed and self-contained system. In this sense, the text research was made In terms of specific language subject, the listening comprehension considers the text more. What's the More important thing is that the text is a kind of communicative behavior,it can be realized Through verbal and nonverbal ways. Nord said, text is a product of intention of communicator express , its acceptance depends on the answer Recipients of individual expectation, is decided by the text of the accepting environment, the recipient's social background, professional knowledge and communication needs, and complete of text communication and definition of Text functionscenario is influenced by the Text reception
   Deepening the research on the text can facilitate people to capture the special personality and Point of the explicit text, which is convenient for people to consider the text from the content, form and aesthetics of the whole Characteristics. From the macroscopic view, we need to analysis from Two aspects:the text itself and text communication, text including the source language text and English text and text Various factors, a dominant characteristic  includes the author, speaker, the listener, and many other factors, such dynamic factors should belong to. According to the analysis of micro or specific factors: vocabulary, syntax and discourse Constitutes the main elements of text analysis, and make the analysis of the meaning of text Figure, the intention of the listener, the listener group, style, text style classification, attitude and background, material quality, literally and an analysis of connotative meaning, etc. 
    
2.2 Is It the Same Influence that Text Type on English Majors and Non-English majors
    From the analysis of internal and external causes, it can be divided into extratextual factors and intratextual factors, the former involves the factors of the information sender and its intentions, the recipient and its expectation, text Media,  place and time of the communication, motivation and so on, it begins the analysis from Its target function of the texts, text form (oral or book Side), the production of the source language text,the purpose of text translation. While the latter is about the factors of theme, content, premise, structure, non-linguistic factors, vocabulary, sentence structure, and super Segmental characteristics and so on, thus the analysis is about the bit receive of meaning and content, communication situation, the real world, micro and macro Structure, illustrations, dialect, register, syllable and other factors. scholars such as Hu Zhuanglin point out that the concept meaning, interpersonal meaning and textual meaning is the perspective of thinking and analysis of the text, and the connotation of meaning nothing more than semantics, pragmatics and discourse these three aspects of content. 
 
 
2.3 What Types of Text is More Difficult on Task of English Passage Listening
    Over the last ten years, the factors affecting on English listening comprehension has become a hot topic of discussion by the domestic. Although many researchers and scholars did a lot of surveys and experiments on it, there are still some problems existing. Chinese and foreign scholars do a certain amount research from different research angles, because the difference of the research Angle and the object of the study, the conclusion is also different. But it has to say, the the study of the text type from the domestic and foreign scholars basely is focused on theory, the empirical research is less, and  the methods of empirical research are not very scientific and efficient. Although some articles mentioned some experiments, but the  data is lack of scientific data analysis and argumentation, generally with personal experience. And, so far, most studies about factors affecting listening comprehension at home and abroad focus on the language knowledge, cultural background knowledge, listening strategy use and personality psychological differences, rarely involves the text type of the discourse understanding the difficulty in English listening comprehension.
 
2.4 Different Listening Strategies to Different Text Types
   Bhler (1934) put forward the pattern of language features tools includes four factors:language Context, speakers, receptor and symbol, The  three kinds function of language  are information, expression and infection. Jakobson's (1960) made a further development of the language tools model, list 6 kinds of text structure:the information, context information sender, recipient, contact channel, code,, discourse function, And the language features inductiion have the functions of information, expression, greetings, poetics and yuan language functions. Reiss construct the text typology in view of the traditional equivalence theory on the basis of language function from Bhler (1934) , divided the text into three basic types, named informative text,  expressive text and operative text, and express the concrete affinity-disaffinity relationship between the language features and text types with a triangle image, which explain the Characteristics of text feature clearly. At the same time, Reiss made a detailed analysis of the relationship between  text type and the standard of translation: involves linguistic level (such as semantic grammar and vocabulary stylistic features), and non-linguistic level (context theme time and place Readers said and emotional factors).
 
Chapter 3 Problem Analysis
3.1 According to literature material make sure the theory basis of this paper has cognitive theory, schema theory and the theory of second language acquisition
   The function of language is communication.  the purpose of language teaching is to Develop  the function of communication. In the process of the communication, verbal communication is a two-way process, only to understand accurately, they can send  information to each other. In this sense, listening is an Important way to people to understand words,it's also  the basis of learning language and language communication. In the process of English learning, listening plays an important role, but it often is the weak link. it has to understand the factors that affect English listening comprehension firstly then you can raise your level of english listening. According to a study in the United States, when normal person awake, 70% of the time used for various communication activities, 11% of them used for writing, 15% used to read, 32% used to say, but at least 42% of the time is listening (Cooper, 1998). American psychologist Anderson (1985) point out that listening comprehension includes three interrelated and  repeated circulation process of perceptual processing, parsing and uti lization. In the stage of the sensory processing, the listener's attention is focused on the listening material itself, the stage of uti lization ,  through the world knowledge and language knowledge, the listener associated the mental representation with existing knowledge  in the brain , so as to provide a correct understanding of the listening material, thus it can be seen that the listening material plays an important part in the listening comprehension, in other words, the  listening comprehension is affected by text type. 
 
3.2 Find out the Effect of Text Type on Task Difficulty of English Passage Listening through questionnaire and experiment
whether there is a difference in the methods of English listening study  and the strategy use in English listening for majors and non-english major students? Zhang Chun (2010) published an article about this topic, she tested English majors and non-english majors students from  institute in guizhou respectively and analyzes the data, and the research results show that there are considerable differences in their English listening learning and listening strategies. To a certain extent, it also means that, The Effect of Text Type on Task Difficulty of English Passage Listening for them is different. With the rapid development of the world economy, the status of English has been identified presently.So in a certain extent there has English learning class for every professional. of course, as is known to all. The ability of listening is a very important part of English learning. So, the school set English listening class for both English majors and non-english major students,, are their level of listening is the same in this way? There are many factors affecting listening comprehension, such as background knowledge, familiarity with the listening material, the listener's psychological quality, the disturbance from the external environment  and so on. From this perspective, English major students had the advantage of the non-major students relatively. 
3.3 Sorting the material and analysis the relevant date of literature and survey
3.3.1 Research Methods 
    This study comprehensive use of qualitative and quantitative research methods. First through self-report and the interview of qualitative research method on the learners' listening style, then through two contains detail and overall problems essay hearing tests to understand the passage learners' listening comprehension level. 
 
3.3.2 Research Question 
 
(1) How the tend that college students in the process of listening comprehension listening style show? 
(2) If the style of listening could influence students' listening comprehension leve? 
(3) If there was a significant difference between the different style of hearing students in understanding the questions of overall and detailed essay? 
 
3.3.3 Study Object 
    The object of study for 151 non-english major students of the entrance Huazhong Science and Technology University in September 2013. There are five students missed the study one or two steps in the process of research, the final subjects for 146 people. Before starting the study, all students expressed a positive, cooperative and wishes. 
 
3.3.4 Research Tool 
(1) The Style of Listening Test 
 
    In order to objectively and accurately judge the students' listening style type, we undertake the student the style test, the listening test consists of two short essays, selected from Shanghai foreign language education press, the second volume of college English listening and speaking course in the second part,it is composed of two types of problems:Grasping the article topic and grasp the details. The short amount of new words, topic familiarity, type and length are suitability of the corresponding level class test. After learners listening task stated in the passage, they think about activity in the process of listening comprehension and the use of various listening strategies, guided by the following two questions: "1. Please describe in detail what you are listening to this article, and understand the thinking activity in the process of this article and the use of strategy. 2. If the words of “Dash, keep the body and Soul together.....” is new word or phrases that you are not familiar with? If listen to come out? How you deal with them in the process of listening to the article? Please give details." 
 
(2) The Interview 
    Interview object for those in the style of listening test self report failed to clearly describe the listening strategies and the thinking process of students (the number is 21), aiming to guide them in more detail about the test used by the strategy and thinking activity, and the way they  handle information and strategy normally, in order to analyze their listening style accurately. Part of the interview is complete by phone, the other part, It is done on the day of the students to complete the report with a face to face to all the interview. 
 
(3) The Proficiency Test of Essay Listening Comprehension  
    This study used the two sets of short passage listening comprehension level test, each consisted of three passage listening comprehension of questions are selected from the hearing part of the CET-4, listening tasks are all multiple choice questions with ten questions, it includes three "global problem"and seven "detail problem". Global problems mainly test the listener to the overall grasp of the article, including the gist and the authors attitude; Detail problems require the listener to pay attention to grasp details information. As the sophomore students can take part in the the CET-4 test, so all respondents are first contact in the test questions. 
 
3. 3.5 The Collection and Analysis of Data 
(1) The Collection and Analysis of Qualitative Data  
    Qualitative data is mainly from the learners in the essay to his way of thinking and strategy in the process of listening comprehension usage of self-reported and interviews on part of the learner. In order to avoid the language barrier, students are described in their native language. Before the start of the experiment, all participants understand the learning strategies, learning style, thought processes, such as concept, and they have discussed how to carry out the description of the process of thought training. Researchers were emphasized before writing self-report to describe themselves in the process of essay understand real thinking activity, rather than they think comprehension strategies should be used. Then, the two researchers based on standard of listening style respectively to analyze the collected data, when a student on the two articles of the test shows the same kind of thinking activity or uses the same kind of similar strategies, it doesn't mean that he has some kind of style. The classification of the two researchers consistency reached 91%. For classification are divided, we pleased the other two master tutors of second language acquisition directed and jointly discussed the divided data, finally came to an agreement. 
 
(2) The Collection and Analysis of Mensurable Data  
 
    Students' listening test in the listening class with two tests interval of 2 weeks, students were told that the test result will be the last of the final grade reference, therefore every participant was carefully and honestly to complete the test. The total score of each item is 20 points, two points of each question, the detail questions are 14 points, overall questions are six points, the last performance is the average point of two sets of questions scored. Finally, this study used SPSS to quantitative analysis of all the data, calculate the average of frequency all kinds of style as well as the learners' listening level poor test scores, standard and single factor analysis of variance was carried out. 
 
Chapter 4 The Solution of the Problem
4.1 Sum up the more difficult text type for students according to the investigation on English majors and Non-English majors in their english study 
    There are many influence factors in listening comprehension. Many researches have done done. Such as Shu dingfang and Zhuang Zhixiang (1996)said that the important factors that affect listening comprehension include the characteristics of the listening material:The characteristics of speaker, tasks and process. And Brown and Yule thinks, the factors influences listening comprehension can be roughly divided into four categories: the speaker,the listener, the content of information and the supplementary conditions. Combining with the former discussion and analysis of the process of listening comprehension, we can be divided it into two categories:  language and non-language factors,what's more, the language factor is the main factors affect listening comprehension, and language factors includes listening material and the  language ability of the listener, etc., that is to say, the factor of listening material includes the factor of the text type; Nonverbal factors includes auxiliary conditions, background knowledge, listening strategies, psychological factors and cultural differences, one of the auxiliary condition referred that the background music was inputted in the process of information, or a chart or pictures in the listening material, all of these were associated about text type;what's more, Background knowledge refers that if listener is familiar with the listening material, then it will go to a good result, which means that the text type of familiarity has effect on listening comprehension.
 
4.2 Draw conclusion based on the reasonable data summary of experiments
    On the analysis of the different hearing style influence on students' essay listening comprehension level, the author get rid of three students without showing fixed listening style, use the single factor analysis of variance for three kinds of different style learners' listening comprehension essay overall level. 
 
Table 1. Different style of hearing learners' listening comprehension essay overall level of descriptive statistics 
  number of people average value standard deviation standard error
analysis mode 63 14. 0952 3. 00384 . 37845
integral mode 31 13. 9677 2. 77469 . 49835
synthesizing type 49 15. 7551 2. 12653 . 30379
total 143 14. 6364 2. 78463 . 23286
Note: The point value of listening score is 20 points
 
Table 2. The essay listening comprehension scores of the single factor analysis variance test results 
quadratic sum free degree mean square F value p value
interblock 93. 633 2 46. 817 6. 506 . 002
intra-group 1007. 458 140 7. 196
total 1101. 091 142
 
Table 3. The test results  after multiple comparison of learners of different styles of listening passage listening comprehension scores 
(I) Listening styles (J) Listening styles The average difference( I-J ) standard error p value
analysis mode     integral mode . 12750 . 58852 . 977
synthesizing type 21. 65986 ( * ) . 51096 . 006
integral mode     analysis mode 2. 12750 . 58852 . 977
synthesizing type 21. 78736 ( * ) . 61562 . 017
synthesizing type   analysis mode 1. 65986 ( * ) . 51096 . 006
integral mode 1. 78736 ( * ) . 61562 . 017
 
From table 1 we can see, the overall learners essay listening comprehension the overall level of the lowest (the average point is 13.97), the level of analysis mode is slightly higher (14.10), the synthesizing type is the highest (15. 76). Table 2 shows the F value is 6. 506, significance level is . 002, this shows that the three kinds of styles of hearing on essay listening comprehension level of statistical significance between learners differ significantly. In table 3, synthesizing type, analysis mode and integral mode of the differences between significant probability reached respectively. 006 and. 017. This shows that the whole level of synthesizing type learners is better than the analysis mode and integral mode learners in the essay listening comprehension . 
 
Kirby (1988) argue that the integral mode and analysis mode of reading is not effective way of reading style. Moreover, two kinds of styles are likely to help complete reading of certain tasks at the same time, it may cause the failure of some reading tasks, Amer& Khouzam (1993) empirical research to support this argument, this study obtained similar results, namely the listening style of integral mode and analysis mode also were not a effective way of hearing; Kirby also pointed out that the synthesizing type reading style can flexible use of whole and analysis of two kinds of style characteristics of a variety of techniques and strategies, so it is an ideal way of reading. This study also found that learners synthesizing type listening style also is the highest level learners of essay listening comprehension. 
 
4.3 Putting forward some feasible suggestions for students and teachers
    Compared with the non-english major students, English major students spent a lot of time on learning English every day. English majors students of most colleges and universities only have one course called comprehensive English class which contains five skills at the first two  years. And the other courses such as English phonetics course, which is designed to correct accent; oral English course is specially  set to improve your oral English ; English listening course is specially to practise listening. All of these are call professional foundation courses, which is the groundwork of the lesson, all of these are taught in English, not like in the non-english major students, the teacher taught them in Chinese at most.  In addition, there are some cultural courses for English majors, such as the European cultural history, English country profiles and so on. these courses was relatively abstruse, and the teacher will have to introduce specially, such as place names, history and so on. and the teacher will occasionally give you emphasize in Chinese down to strengthen your memory, the classes do not take the syntax, focus on understanding memory, it is helpful to better learning English if learning western culture and its history,and it is also of great help to English listening comprehension, and in junior year, there will be advanced courses, such as linguistics, British and American literature, and so on, for these courses, it is hard to learn these lessons if you do not like English majors through professional training. English major students spend more time on English listening training than non-english major, except the listening class, the teacher will give students a lot of extracurricular listening homework, also recommend many listening websites for students and suggest the students attach importance to different text types of listening material, as a result, compare to the non-english major, English major students are more familiar with the text type in english listening comparison.
 
Conclusion
    Based on the research results, the author suggested that in listening teaching of the future, first of all, teachers can guide students to clear their own hearing style, realized the deficiencies of integral mode and analysis mode listening style. At the same time, according to different students of different style the strategy training, on the other hand, encouraging students to give full play to the advantages of the original style of hearing and taking some concrete measures to help students develop listening style to the synthesizing type. 
 
Reference
 
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